• Par (a)

        Lebanon is a sovereign, free, and independent country. It is a final homeland for all its citizens. It is unified in its territory, people, and institutions within the boundaries defined in this constitution and recognized internationally.


      • Par (b)

        Lebanon is Arab in its identity and in its affiliation. It is a founding and active member of the League of Arab States and abides by its pacts and covenants. Lebanon is also a founding and active member of the United Nations Organization and abides by its covenants and by the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. The Government shall embody these principles in all fields and areas without exception.


      • Par (c)

        Lebanon is a parliamentary democratic republic based on respect for public liberties, especially the freedom of opinion and belief, and respect for social justice and equality of rights and duties among all citizens without discrimination.

      • Par (d)

        The people are the source of authority and sovereignty; they shall exercise these powers through the constitutional institutions.

      • Par (e)

        The political system is established on the principle of separation of powers, their balance and cooperation.

      • Par (f)

        The economic system is free and ensures private initiative and the right of private property.

      • Par (g)

        The even development among regions on the educational, social, and economic levels shall be a basic pillar of the unity of the state and the stability of the system.

      • Par (h)

        The abolition of political confessionalism shall be a basic national goal and shall be achieved according to a staged plan.

      • Par (i)

        Lebanese territory is one for all Lebanese. Every Lebanese shall have the right to live in any part thereof and to enjoy the rule of law wherever he resides. There shall be no segregation of the people on the basis of any type of belonging, and no fragmentation, partition, or settlement of non-Lebanese in Lebanon.

      • Par (j)

        There shall be no constitutional legitimacy for any authority which contradicts the 'pact of mutual existence.


      • Article 1

        Lebanon is an independent, indivisible, and sovereign state. Its frontiers are those which now bound it: On the North: From the mouth of Nahr Al-Kabir along a line following the course of this river to its point of junction with Wadi Khalid opposite Jisr Al-Qamar.On the East: The summit line separating the Wadi Khalid and Nahr Al-Asi, passing by the villages of Mu'aysarah, Harbanah, Hayt, Ibish, Faysan to the height of the two villages of Brifa and Matraba. This line follows the northern boundary of the Ba`albak District at the northeastern and south eastern directions, thence the eastern boundaries of the districts of Ba`albak, Biqa', Hasbayya, and Rashayya.On the South: The present southern boundaries of the districts of Sûr (Tyre) and Marji`yun.On the West:The Mediterranean.




      • Article 2

        No part of the Lebanese territory may be alienated or ceded.

      • Article 3

        The boundaries of the administrative areas may not be modified except by law.

      • Article 4

        Greater Lebanon is a Republic the capital of which is Beirut.

      • Article 5

        The Lebanese flag shall be composed of three horizontal stripes, a white stripe between two red ones. The width of the white stripe shall be equal to that of both red stripes. In the center of and occupying one third of the white stripe is a green Cedar tree with its top touching the upper red stripe and its base touching the lower red stripe.


      • Article 6

        Lebanese nationality and the manner in which it is acquired, retained, and lost shall be determined in accordance with the law.

      • Article 7

        All Lebanese shall be equal before the law. They shall equally enjoy civil and political rights and shall equally be bound by public obligations and duties without any distinction.

      • Article 8

        Individual liberty is guaranteed and protected by law. No one may be arrested, imprisoned, or kept in custody except according to the provisions of the law. No offense may be established or penalty imposed except by law.

      • Article 9

        There shall be absolute freedom of conscience. The state in rendering homage to the God Almighty shall respect all religions and creeds and shall guarantees, under its protection the free exercise of all religious rites provided that public order is not disturbed. It shall also guarantees that the personal status and religious interests of the population, to whatever religious sect they belong, shall be respected.

      • Article 10

        Education shall be free insofar as it is not contrary to public order and morals and does not affect the dignity of any of the religions or sects. There shall be no violation of the right of religious communities to have their own schools provided they follow the general rules issued by the state regulating public instruction.

      • Article 11

        Arabic is the official national language. A law shall determine the cases in which the French language can be used.

      • Article 12

        Every Lebanese shall be the right to hold public office, no preference shall be made except on the basis of merit and competence, according to the conditions established by law. A special statute shall guarantee the rights of civil service in the departments to which they belong.

      • Article 13

        The freedom to express one's opinion orally or in writing, the freedom of the press, the freedom of assembly, and the freedom of association shall be guaranteed within the limits established by law.

      • Article 14

        The place of residence is inviolable. No one may enter it except in the circumstances and manners prescribed by law.

      • Article 15

        Rights of ownership shall be protected by law. No one's property may be expropriated except for reasons of public utility, in the cases established by law and after fair compensation has been paid beforehand.



      • Article 16

        The legislative power shall be vested in a single body, the Chamber of Deputies.

      • Article 17

        Executive power shall be entrusted to the Council of Ministers and the council shall exercise it in accordance with conditions started in this constitution.

      • Article 18

        The Chamber of Deputies and the Council of Ministers have the right to propose laws. No law shall be promulgated until it has been adopted by the Chamber.

      • Article 19

        A Constitutional Council shall be established to supervise the constitutionality of laws and to arbitrate conflicts that arise from parliamentary and presidential elections. The President of the republic, the speaker of Parliament, the Prime Minister, along with any ten Members of Parliament, have the right to refer to this Council matters that relate to the constitutionality of laws. The officially recognized heads of religious communities have the right to refer to this Council laws relating to personal status, the freedom of belief and religious practice, and the freedom of religious education. The rules governing the organization, operation, composition of the Council and referral thereto shall be decided by a special law.

      • Article 20

        The judicial power shall be exercised by courts of various degrees and jurisdictions. It shall function within the limits of an order established by the law and offering accordingly the necessary guarantees to judges and litigants. The law shall determine the conditions and limits of the judicial guarantees. The judges shall be independent in the exercise of their functions. The decisions and judgments of all courts shall be rendered and executed in the name of the Lebanese People.

      • Article 21

        Every Lebanese citizen who has completed his twenty-first year is an elector provided he fulfills the conditions stated by the electoral law.


      • Article 22

        With the election of the first Chamber of Deputies on a national, non-confessional basis, a Senate shall be established in which all the religious communities shall be represented. Its authority shall be limited to major national issues.

      • Article 23

        (Abrogated by the Constitutional Law of October 17, 1927)

      • Article 24

        The Chamber of Deputies shall be composed of elected members; their number and the method of their election shall be determined by the electoral laws in effect. Until such time as the Chamber enacts new electoral laws on a non-confessional basis, the distribution of seats shall be according to the following principles: a) Equal representation between Christians and Muslims. b) Proportional representation among the confessional groups within each of the two religious communities. c) Proportional representation among geographic regions. Exceptionally, and for one time only, the seats that are currently vacant, as well as the new seats that have been established by law, shall be filled by appointment, all at once, and by a two thirds majority of the Government of National Unity. This is to establish equality between Christians and Muslims as stipulated in the Document of National Accord. The electoral laws shall specify the details regarding the implementation of this clause.

      • Article 25

        Should the Chamber of Deputies be dissolved, the Decision of dissolution must provide for the holding of new elections to be held in accordance with Article 24 and within a period not exceeding three months.


      • Article 26

        The Government and the Chamber of Deputies shall be located in Beirut.

      • Article 27

        A member of the Chamber shall represent the whole nation. No restriction or condition may be imposed upon his mandate by his electors.

      • Article 28

        A Deputy may also occupy a ministerial position. Ministers, all or in part, may be selected from among the members of the Chamber of Deputies or from persons outside the Chamber.

      • Article 29

        Cases in which persons are disqualified from becoming Deputies shall be determined by law.

      • Article 30

        The Deputies alone have competence to judge the validity of their mandate. No Deputy's mandate may be invalidated except by a majority of two thirds of the votes of the entire membership. This clause is automatically canceled as soon as the Constitutional Council is established and as soon as the laws relating to it are implemented.

      • Article 31

        Meetings of the Chamber outside those set for legal sessions shall be unlawful and ipso facto null and void.





      • Article 32

        The Chamber shall meet each year in two ordinary sessions. The first session shall open on the first Tuesday following March 15 and shall continue its meetings until the end of May. The second session shall begin on the first Tuesday following October15; its meetings shall be reserved to the discussion of, and voting on the budget before any other work. This session lasts until the end of the year.

      • Article 33

        The ordinary sessions shall begin and end automatically on the dates fixed in Article 32. The President of the Republic in agreement with the Prime Minister may summon the Chamber to extraordinary sessions by a decree that specifies the dates of the opening and closing of the extraordinary sessions as well as the agenda. The President of the Republic shall be required to convene the Chamber if an absolute majority of the total membership so requests.

      • Article 34

        The Chamber shall not be validly constituted unless the majority of the total membership is present. Decisions shall be taken by a majority vote. Should the votes be equal, the question under consideration shall be rejected.

      • Article 35

        The meetings of the Chamber shall be public. However, at the request of the Government or of five Deputies, the Chamber may meet in secret sessions. It may then decide whether to resume the discussion of the same question in public.

      • Article 36

        Votes shall be cast verbally or by the members rising and sitting, except in case of elections when the ballot shall be secret. With respect to laws in general and on questions of confidence, the vote shall always be taken by roll-call and in an audible voice.

      • Article 37

        Every Deputy shall have the absolute right to raise the question of no-confidence in the government during ordinary or extraordinary sessions. Discussion of, and voting on such a proposal may not take place until at least five days after submission to the Bureau of the Chamber and its communication to the ministers concerned.

      • Article 38

        No Bill that has been rejected by the Chamber may be re-introduced during the same session.

      • Article 39

        No member of the Chamber may be prosecuted because of ideas and opinions expressed during the period of his mandate.

      • Article 40

        No member of the Chamber may, during the sessions, be prosecuted or arrested for a criminal offense without the permission of the Chamber, except when caught in the act.

      • Article 41

        Should a seat in the Chamber become vacant, the election of a successor shall begin within two months. The mandate of the new member shall not exceed that of the old member whose place he is taking; however, should the seat in the Chamber become vacant during the last six months of its mandate, no successor may be elected.

      • Article 42

        General elections for the renewal of the Chamber shall take place within a sixty-day period preceeding the expiration of its mandate.

      • Article 43

        The Chamber shall draw up its own internal rules and procedures.

      • Article 44

        Each time a new Chamber is elected, the Chamber shall meet under the presidency of the oldest member, and the two youngest members shall serve as secretaries. It shall then elect separately, by a secret ballot and by an absolute majority of the votes cast, the President and the Vice President of the Chamber to hold office for the length of the Chamber's term. At the third ballot, a relative majority shall be sufficient. Should the votes be equal, the oldest candidate shall be considered elected. Every time a new Chamber is elected, as well as in the October session or each year, the Chamber shall elect two Secretaries by secret ballot according to the majority stipulated in the first part or this article. The Chamber may, once only, two years after the election of the President and the Vice President, and in the first session it holds, withdraw its confidence from the President or the Vice President by a Decision of two thirds of the Chamber, based on a petition signed by at least ten Deputies. The Chamber, at such point, must hold an immediate session to fill the vacant post.

      • Article 45

        Members of the Chamber may only vote when they are present at the meeting. Voting by proxy shall not be permitted.

      • Article 46

        The Chamber shall have the exclusive right to maintain order in its meetings through its President.

      • Article 47

        Petitions to the Chamber may not be presented except in writing. They may not be presented verbally or at the bar of the Chamber.

      • Article 48

        The remuneration of members of the Chamber shall be determined by law.







      • Article 73

        One month at least and two months at most before the expiration of the term of office of the President of the Republic, the Chamber shall be convened by its President to elect the new President of the Republic. However, should it not be convened for this purpose, the Chamber shall meet automatically on the tenth day preceding the expiration of the President's term of office. 

      • Article 74

        Should the Presidency become vacant through the death or resignation of the President or for any other cause, the Chamber shall meet immediately and by virtue of the law to elect a successor. If either Chamber happens to be dissolved at the time the vacancy occurs, the electoral bodies shall be convened without delay and, as soon as the elections have taken place, the Chamber meets by virtue of the law. 

      • Article 75

        The Chamber meeting to elect the President of the Republic shall be considered an electoral body and not a legislative assembly. It must proceed immediately, without discussion of any other act, to elect the Head of the State


      • Article 76

        The constitution may be revised upon the suggestion of the President of the Republic. In such a case the Government submits a bill to the Chamber of Deputies. 

      • Article 77

        The constitution may also be revised upon the request of the Chamber of Deputies. In this such the following procedures shall be observed: During an ordinary session and upon the proposal of at least ten of its members, the Chamber of Deputies may propose, by a two-thirds majority of the total members lawfully composing the Chamber, the revision of the constitution. However, the articles and the issues referred to in the proposal must be clearly defined and stated. The President of the Chamber shall then transmit the recommendation to the Government requesting it to prepare a bill relating thereto. If the Government approves the proposal of the Chamber by a majority of two thirds, it must prepare the draft amendment and submit it to the Chamber within four months; if it does not approve, it shall return the Decision to the Chamber for reconsideration. If the Chamber insists upon the proposal by a three-fourths majority of the total members lawfully composing the Chamber, the President of the Republic has then either to comply with the Chamber’s recommendation wish ask the Council of Ministers to dissolve the Chamber and to hold new elections within three months. If the new Chamber insists on the necessity of amendment, the Government must acquiese and submit the draft amendment within four months. 


      • Article 78

        When a bill dealing with a constitutional amendment is submitted to the Chamber, it must confine itself to its discussion before any other work until a final vote is taken. It may discuss and vote only on the articles and the questions clearly enumerated and defined in the bill submitted to it. 

      • Article 79

        When a bill law dealing with a constitutional amendment is submitted to the Chamber, it cannot discuss it or vote upon it except when a majority of two thirds of the members lawfully composing the Chamber are present. Voting shall like wise be by the same majority. The President of the Republic shall be required to promulgate the law of the constitutional amendment under the same conditions and in the same form as ordinary laws. He shall have the right within the period established for the promulgation, to ask the Chamber to reconsider the bill, in which case the vote is by a majority of two thirds majority. 



      • Article 80

        The Supreme Council, whose function is to try Presidents and Ministers shall, consist of seven deputies elected by the Chamber of Deputies and of eight of the highest Lebanese judges, according to their rank in the judicial hierarchy, or, in case of equal ranks, in the order of seniority. They shall meet under the presidency of the judge of the highest rank. The Decisions of condemnation by the Supreme Council shall be rendered by a majority of ten votes. A special law shall be issued to determine the procedure to be followed by this Council. 


      • Article 81

        Public taxes be imposed and no taxes shall beestablished or collected in the Lebanese Republic except by a comprehensive law which shall applie to the entire Lebanese territory without exception. 

      • Article 82

        No tax may be modified or abolished except by virtue of law. 

      • Article 83

        Each year at the beginning of the October session, the Government shall submit to the Chamber of Deputies the general budget estimates of state expenditures and revenues for the following year. The budget shall voted upon article by article.  

      • Article 84

        During the discussion of the budget and draft laws involving the opening of supplementary or extraordinary credits, the Chamber may not increase the credits proposed in the budget or in the draft laws mentioned above either by way of amendment Or by means of a proposal. The Chamber may, however, adopt, by way of proposal, laws involving further expenditures after the close of this discussion. 

      • Article 85

        No extraordinary credit may be opened except by a special law. however, should unforseen circumstances render urgent expenditures necessary, the President of the Republic may issue a Decree, based on a Decision of the Council of Ministers, to open extraordinary or supplementary credits or transfer appropriations in the budget as long as these credits do not exceed a maximum limit specified in the budget law. These measures shall be submitted to the Chamber for approval at the first ensuing session. 

      • Article 86

        If the Chamber of Deputies has not given a final decision on the budget estimates before the expiration of the session devoted to the examination of the budget, the President of the Republic, in coordination with the Prime Minister shall, immediately convenes the Chamber for an extraordinary session which shall last until the end of January in order to continue the discussion of the budget; if at the end of this extraordinary session, the budget estimates have not been finally settled, the Council of Ministers may than make a decision on the basis of which a decree is issued by the President giving effect to the above estimates in the form in which they were submitted to the Chamber. However, the Council of Ministers may not exercise this right unless the budget estimates were submitted to the Chamber at least fifteen days before the commencement of its session. During the said extraordinary session, taxes, charges, duties, imposts, and other kinds of revenues shall continue to be collected as before. The budget of the previous year shall be adopted as a basis. To this must be added the permanent supplementary credits and from it must deducted the permanent credits which have been dropped, and the Government shall fix the expenditures for the month of January on the basis of the 'provisional twelfth.'of preceding year. 

      • Article 87

        The final financial accounts of the administration for each year must be submitted to the Chamber for approval before the promulgation of the budget of the second year wich follows that year . A special law shall be issued for the setting up of an Audit office. 

      • Article 88

        No public loan or undertaking involving an expenditure from the treasury funds may be contracted except by virtue of a law. 

      • Article 89

        No contract or concession for the exploitation of the natural resources of the country, or a public utility service, and no a monopoly may be granted except by virtue of a law and for a limited period. 



      • Article 90

        (abrogated by the Constitutional Law of November 9, 1943) 

      • Article 91

        (abrogated by the Constitutional Law of November 9, 1943) 

      • Article 92

        (abrogated by the constitutional law of November 9,1943) 

      • Article 93

        (abrogated by the constitutional law of January 21,1947) 

      • Article 94

        (abrogated by the constitutional law of November 9,1943) 


    • Article 95

      • Article 95

        The Chamber of Deputies that is elected on the basis of equality between Muslims and Christians shall take the appropriate measures to bring about the abolition of political confessionalism according to a transitional plan. A National Committee shall be formed, headed by the President of the Republic, it include, in addition to the President of the Chamber of Deputies and the Prime Minister, leading political, intellectual, and social figures. The tasks of this Committee shall be to study and propose the means to ensure the abolition of confessionalism, propose them to the Chamber of Deputies and to the Ministers council of ministers, and to follow up the execution of the transitional plan. During the transitional phase: a) The sectarian groups shall be represented in a just and equitable manner in the formation of the Cabinet. b) The principle of confessional representation in public service jobs, in the judiciary, in the military and security institutions, and in public and mixed agencies shall be cancelled in accordance with the requirements of national reconciliation; they shall be replaced by the principle of expertise and competence. However, Grade One posts and their equivalents shall be excepted from this rule, and the posts shall be distributed equally between Christians and Muslims without reserving any particular job for any setarian group but rather applying the principles of expertise and competence.


      • Article 96

        (Abrogated by the Constitutional Law of January 21, 1947) 

      • Article 97

        (Abrogated by the Constitutional Law of January 21, 1947) 

      • Article 98

        (Abrogated by the Constitutional Law of January 21, 1947) 

      • Article 99

        (Abrogated by the Constitutional Law of January 21, 1947)

      • Article 100

        (Abrogated by the Constitutional Law of January 21, 1947)

    • ARTICLES 101-102

      • Article 101

        Beginning September 1,1929, the state of 'Greater Lebanon' shall be known as 'The Lebanese Republic' without any other change or modification. 

      • Article 102

        All legislative provisions contrary to the present constitution shall be abrogated.